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Question 25:

You will hear a lecture. After listening to the lecture, in 10 seconds, please speak into the microphone and retell what you have just heard from the lecture in your own words. You will have 40 seconds to give your response.

Suggested Answer:

The lecture is about the effect that Japanese culture has had on its business models, like the Toyota Model. The model borrows from the traditional Japanese respect for craftsmanship. It seeks to integrate quality, not at the end of the production process, but progressively at every stage of production, so much so that production can be stopped by any worker the moment he notices a quality problem. The model, originally conceived by an American consultant readily found acceptance in Japan because of its culture. Likewise, there is Just in Time inventory model, wherein goods are produced or procured from hand to mouth so that there is no burden and cost of extra or obsolete inventory. These together bring quality into the Japanese business processes.

Question 26:

You will hear a lecture. After listening to the lecture, in 10 seconds, please speak into the microphone and retell what you have just heard from the lecture in your own words. You will have 40 seconds to give your response.

Suggested Answer:

The lecture tells us about the dynamic nature of cosmic matter and about the constant recycling of matter in the universe. Stars or gases from which they are formed keep evolving and changing form. From primordial gases formed after the Big Bang, the first stars are formed, like the red giant. They keep losing mass that goes into the reservoir of energy in the universe. Over time the red giant explodes into a supernova, spilling energy all over. This further enriches the gases in the reservoir until it evolves into new elements, new star material. So the cosmic cycle continues.

Question 27:

You will hear a lecture. After listening to the lecture, in 10 seconds, please speak into the microphone and retell what you have just heard from the lecture in your own words. You will have 40 seconds to give your response.

Suggested Answer:

The lecture tells us about Noam Chomsky’s rather radical ideas about the origin of language. The conventional wisdom is that language is learnt like any other skill. Chomsky opines that language rather evolves through accidental experience. The lecture gives the analogy of human limbs evolving as arms rather than wings due to accidental need. The human exposure to a language provides capacity to let the language grow in our head. This points to the effect of environment on shaping our language ability. To know a language well, we need to be in the language speaking environment.

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